1) Why was the following post closed?
It's clearly a question of analytic philosophy related to the philosophy of mind and indirectly philosophy of law. The infamous Gilbert Ryle has a whole chapter in his Concept of Mind devoted to defining the term. Mr. Kloecking claims it's a concern of Dennett (Should anyone be surprised, considering the lineage?). It has it's own entry in SEP, and is used in forsenic psychology in judicial proceedings. And lastly, it has a section devoted to it in WP's entry Belief.
2) Are there users at a certain level which can override this closing or is the vote the only way to reopen?
After doing some reading online, this issue of false closure seems to be a recurrent theme.
3) The current sysadmin Mr. Klöcking and some users it seems, to agree this is troublesome and needs to be fixed.
Has a fix been implemented, and if not, how can we bring about a fix?
I believe that many capable users would be off-put if asking/responding to questions only to find a faulty mechanism in place for regulating expertise on what constitutes a good question.
4) Are there currently community-recognized guidelines for refereeing disputes regarding general terminology and philosophy terminology, and if not by what mechanism of governance can they be proposed and ratified?
I would suggest being a veteran of online-communities, that part of the drive to membership and participation can be driven by providing conflict standardized resolution mechanisms which in philosophy is particularly important given that people's ideas have frameworks have frameworks have...